Financial statement analysis is valuable for understanding a company's financial health and performance. Whether you're an investor, a lender, or a business owner, knowing how to read and interpret financial statements can help you make informed

# Financial Statement Analysis

## Net Profit Margin: Formula, Calculation, Interpretation

What's it: Net profit margin is a profitability ratio to measure how much profit is left (in percent) after the company has covered all its costs, including interest expense and taxes. We calculate it by dividing net profit by revenue.

## Efficiency Ratio: Type, Formula, Interpretation

What's it: An efficiency ratio is a financial ratio to show us how well a company utilizes its assets in relation to its ability to generate revenue. Some examples include accounts payable turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio, and accounts

## Activity Ratio: Types, Formulas, and Interpretations

What's it: Activity ratio is a financial ratio to measure how well a company manages its assets. We then relate it to revenue or expenses to pay suppliers. Some are useful for assessing a company's effectiveness in managing short-term assets

## Cash Flow Ratios: Examples, Formulas, and Interpretations

What's it: Cash flow ratios are financial ratios calculated by comparing the metrics in the cash flow statement with other items in the financial statements. For example, cash from operations (CFO) is a commonly used metric. It is an

## Liquidity Ratio: Examples, Formulas, How to Calculate

What's it: The liquidity ratio is a financial ratio to measure a company's ability to meet its short-term obligations. Commonly used ratios are the current ratio, cash ratio, and quick ratio. Their calculations are relatively easy because we

## Current Ratio: How to Calculate and Interpret

What's it: The current ratio is a financial ratio to measure liquidity by considering all short-term assets and liabilities. It is the loosest ratio among other liquidity ratios such as quick and cash ratios. We get the current

## Quick Ratio: Formula, Calculation, Interpretation

What's it: The quick ratio is a financial ratio to measure liquidity by excluding some less liquid accounts such as inventory. It tells us how much more liquid current assets can cover short-term liabilities. Inventories and some other

## Working Capital Turnover: Formula, Calculation, and Interpretation

What's it: Working capital turnover is a financial ratio to measure how efficiently companies use their working capital to generate revenue. We calculate it by dividing revenue by the average working capital. A higher ratio indicates

## Days Payable Outstanding: How to Calculate and Interpret it

What's it: Days payable outstanding (DPO) is a financial ratio showing how many days on average it takes a company to pay its suppliers. We calculate it by dividing the number of days in a year by the accounts payable turnover

## Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio: How To Calculate And Read It

What's it: The accounts payable turnover ratio is a financial ratio showing the number of times a company pays its suppliers over a year or accounting period. It measures the company's effectiveness in managing accounts

## Days of Inventory on Hand: Formula and How to Calculate

What's it: Days of inventory on hand (DOH) is a financial ratio showing how many days on average a company converts its inventory into sales. It is inversely related to the inventory turnover ratio. A lower DOH is preferable because

## Accounts Receivable Turnover: Formula, Calculation, How to Read It

What's it: Accounts receivable turnover is a financial ratio showing the number of times a business converts accounts receivable into cash. Since accounts receivable represent a potential source of cash inflows for the company, a low ratio can

## Days Sales Outstanding: Formula, How to Calculate and Read It

What's it: Days sales outstanding (DSO) is a financial ratio to measure how many days on average it takes the company to collect on accounts receivable. It is inversely related to accounts receivable turnover. Thus, the lower the

## Inventory Turnover Ratio: Formula, Calculation and How to Read It

What's it: Inventory turnover ratio is a financial ratio to show the number of times companies convert their inventory into sales during a given period. It is useful for evaluating management effectiveness in managing inventory. The

## Solvency Ratio: Formulas, Examples, and Calculations

What's it: The solvency ratio is a financial ratio to measure a company's ability to meet its long-term obligations. To calculate it, we divide the debt relative to the firm's capital or assets. Or, we compare a company's ability to generate

## EBIT Margin: Calculation and Interpretation

What's it: EBIT margin is a profitability ratio to measure how efficiently a company converts its revenue into profit before paying interest and taxes. We calculate it by dividing EBIT by revenue. A high ratio is better because the

## NOPAT Margin: Formula, Calculation, and Interpretation

What's it: NOPAT margin is a profitability ratio to measure how efficiently a company generates profit from its core business after accounting for expenses paid as taxes. We calculate it by dividing NOPAT by revenue. We use it as an

## Return on Assets (ROA): Calculation and Interpretation

What's it: Return on assets (ROA) is a profitability ratio to measure how well a company uses its assets to generate profits. This ratio tells us about the returns the company gets on its assets. We calculate it by dividing net profit

## EBIAT Margin: Formula, Calculation, and Interpretation

What's it: EBIAT margin is a profitability ratio to measure how efficiently a company generates profit from all its activities before paying interest expense while taking taxes into account. We calculate it by dividing EBIAT by

## Return on Common Equity (ROCE): Calculation and Interpretation

What's it: Return on common equity (ROCE) is a profitability ratio for measuring the return to common stockholders on their invested capital. It is an alternative to return on equity (ROE) by isolating returns to preferred