What’s it: Artificial intelligence refers to intelligence like humans but carried out by artificial machines. Experts program these machines to mimic human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning from experience, and problem-solving.
Driving factors for the development of artificial intelligence
The development of artificial intelligence arises from the idea that what is in the human mind we should be able to codify into a machine. Advances in technology and science (such as hardware, software, computing, statistics, etc.) make it possible to do this.
Developers study the learning process, reasoning, and human perception. Then, they code it into a computer or robot machine. To be similar to humans, they use a cross-disciplinary approach such as mathematics, computer science, linguistics, psychology, and many more. That way, computers or robots think and behave like humans.
Examples of artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence continues to expand rapidly, taking advantage of the power of increasingly sophisticated computing.
The first example is the chess-playing computer system. In fact, it can beat human players. An example is Deep Blue, which won against the world chess champion, Garry Kasparov, on May 11, 1997.
The second example is an expert system. This is a further development of artificial intelligence. These systems take advantage of the computer’s ability to store, organize, and retrieve large amounts of information. It stores the knowledge and experience of experts in a specific field. When ordinary people asked the system questions, it would give answers like those experts.
Expert systems have many applications. It performs various tasks, such as analyzing company results, reviewing loan applications, buying stocks, medical diagnosis, identifying poisons, etc.
Apart from codifying expert knowledge, the system can also create new knowledge by extrapolating data and patterns. One of them is the Google search engine. Google can recognize our online habits and interpret queries in search engines. Then, the system sends ads that match what we were looking for earlier.
Another example is Google translate. The first time it was launched, it still provided relatively rigid translation results. Then, you may provide input on the correct translation. The Google engine stores it and build algorithms with it, along with other sources. Now, Google Translate’s results are better than ever.
Lastly is robotics—the developer programs it to react to sensory stimuli and respond accordingly.
Artificial intelligence controversies
Rapidly developing technology and knowledge are important driving factors for the advancement of artificial intelligence. We may have looked at basic function calculating machines, graphic simulators, and text recognition engines as examples of artificial intelligence.
However, over time, that view changed. Such functions are now embedded in the newest computers and are in common use.
Artificial intelligence is under the supervision of scientists and the public. It was the target of criticism from various parties for several reasons.
First, one common theme is that machines will become so advanced that humans will not keep up. They will take off, redesign themselves at exponential speeds, and threaten human existence.
Second, the threat of privacy and cybercrime is increasing. Criminals can use it to hack into people’s privacy and even get armed.
Third, other arguments argue about ethics. Should we treat intelligent systems like robots with the same rights as humans?